Arabic script – Wikipedia

Letter or Digraph [A] Use & Pronunciation Unicode i’jam & other additions Shape Similar Arabic Letter(s) U+ [B] [C] above below پ پـ ـپـ ـپ Pe, used to represent the phoneme /p/ in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Khowar, Sindhi, Urdu, Kurdish, Kashmiri; it is can be used in Arabic to describe the phoneme /p/ otherwise it is normalized to /b/ ب e.g. پول Paul also written بول U+067E ‎ none 3 dots ٮ ب ݐ ݐـ ـݐـ ـݐ ‎ used to represent the equivalent of the Latin letter Ƴ (palatalized glottal stop /ʔʲ/) in some African languages such as Fulfulde. U+0750   ﮳﮳﮳ ‎  none 3 dots
(horizontal) ٮ ب ٻ ٻـ ـٻـ ـٻ B̤ē, used to represent a voiced bilabial implosive /ɓ/ in Hausa, Sindhi and Saraiki. U+067B ‎ none 2 dots
(vertically) ٮ ب ڀ ڀـ ـڀـ ـڀ ‎ represents an aspirated voiced bilabial plosive /bʱ/ in Sindhi. U+0680 ‎ none 4 dots ٮ ب ٺ ٺـ ـٺـ ـٺ Ṭhē, represents the aspirated voiceless retroflex plosive /ʈʰ/ in Sindhi. U+067A ‎ 2 dots
(vertically) none ٮ ت ټ ټـ ـټـ ـټ Ṭē, used to represent the phoneme /ʈ/ in Pashto. U+067C ﮿ ‎ 2 dots ring ٮ ت ٽ ٽـ ـٽـ ـٽ Ṭe, used to represent the phoneme (a voiceless retroflex plosive /ʈ/) in Sindhi U+067D ‎ 3 dots
(inverted) none ٮ ت ٹـ ـٹـ ـٹ Ṭe, used to represent Ṭ (a voiceless retroflex plosive /ʈ/) in Punjabi, Kashmiri, Urdu. U+0679 ◌ؕ ‎ small ط ‎ none ٮ ت ٿ ٿـ ـٿـ ـٿ Teheh, used in Sindhi and Rajasthani (when written in Sindhi alphabet); used to represent the phoneme /t͡ɕʰ/ (pinyin q) in Chinese Xiao’erjing. U+067F ‎ 4 dots none ٮ ت ڄ ڄـ ـڄـ ـڄ ‎ represents the “ц” voiceless dental affricate /t͡s/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+0684 ‎ none 2 dots
(vertically) ح ج ڃ ڃـ ـڃـ ـڃ ‎ represents the “ћ” voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate /t͡ɕ/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+0683 ‎ none 2 dots ح ح ج چ چـ ـچـ ـچ Che, used to represent /t͡ʃ/ (“ch”). It is used in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Urdu, Kashmiri and Kurdish. /ʒ/ in Egypt. U+0686 ‎ none 3 dots ح ج څ څـ ـڅـ ـڅ Ce, used to represent the phoneme /t͡s/ in Pashto. U+0685 ‎ 3 dots none ح ج خ ح ݗ ݗـ ـݗـ ـݗ ‎ represents the “ђ” voiced alveolo-palatal affricate /d͡ʑ/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+0757 ‎ 2 dots none ح ح ځ ځـ ـځـ ـځ Źim, used to represent the phoneme /d͡z/ in Pashto. U+0681 ◌ٔ ‎ Hamza none ح ج خ ح ݙ ݙ ـݙ ‎ used in Saraiki to represent a Voiced alveolar implosive /ɗ̢/. U+0759 ‎ small ط ‎ 2 dots
(vertically) د د ڊ ڊ ـڊ ‎ used in Saraiki to represent a voiced retroflex implosive /ᶑ/. U+068A ‎ none 1 dot د د ڈ ڈ ـڈ Ḍal, used to represent a Ḍ (a voiced retroflex plosive /ɖ/) in Punjabi, Kashmiri and Urdu. U+0688 ◌ؕ ‎ small ط ‎ none د د ڌ ڌ ـڌ Dhal, used to represent the phoneme /d̪ʱ/ in Sindhi U+068C ‎ 2 dots none د د ډ ډ ـډ Ḍal, used to represent the phoneme /ɖ/ in Pashto. U+0689 ﮿ ‎ none ring د د ڑ ڑ ـڑ Ṛe, represents a retroflex flap /ɽ/ in Punjabi and Urdu. U+0691 ◌ؕ ‎ small ط ‎ none ر ر ړ ړ ـړ Ṛe, used to represent a retroflex lateral flap in Pashto. U+0693 ﮿ ‎ none ring ر ر ݫ ݫ ـݫ ‎ used in Ormuri to represent a voiced alveolo-palatal fricative /ʑ/, as well as in Torwali. U+076B ‎ 2 dots
(vertically) none ر ر ژ ژ ـژ Že / zhe, used to represent the voiced postalveolar fricative /ʒ/ in, Persian, Pashto, Kurdish, Urdu, Punjabi and Uyghur. U+0698 ‎ 3 dots none ر ز ږ ږ ـږ Ǵe / ẓ̌e, used to represent the phoneme /ʐ/ /ɡ/ /ʝ/ in Pashto. U+0696 ‎ 1 dot 1 dot ر ز ڕ ڕ ـڕ ‎ used in Kurdish to represent rr /r/ in Soranî dialect. U+0695 ٚ ‎ none V pointing down ر ر ݭ ݭـ ـݭـ ـݭ ‎ used in Kalami to represent a voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/, and in Ormuri to represent a voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative /ɕ/. U+076D ‎ 2 dots vertically none س س ݜ ݜـ ـݜـ ـݜ ‎ used in Shina to represent a voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/. U+075C ‎ 4 dots none س ش س ښ ښـ ـښـ ـښ X̌īn / ṣ̌īn, used to represent the phoneme /x/ /ʂ/ /ç/ in Pashto. U+069A ‎ 1 dot 1 dot س ش س ڜ ڜـ ـڜـ ـڜ ‎ used to represent Spanish words with /t͡ʃ/ in Morocco. U+069C ‎ 3 dots 3 dots س ش س ڨ ڨـ ـڨـ ـڨ Ga, used to represent the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in Algerian and Tunisian. U+06A8 ‎ 3 dots none ٯ ق گ گـ ـگـ ـگ Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Kyrgyz, Kazakh, Kurdish, Uyghur, Mesopotamian, Urdu and Ottoman Turkish. U+06AF line horizontal line none گ ك ګ ګـ ـګـ ـګ Gaf, used to represent the phoneme /ɡ/ in Pashto. U+06AB ﮿ ‎ ring none ک ك ݢ ݢـ ـݢـ ـݢ Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in the Jawi script of Malay. U+0762 ‎ 1 dot none ک ك ڬ ڬـ ـڬـ ـڬ U+06AC ‎ 1 dot none ك ك ࢴـ ـࢴـ ـࢴ Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in the Pegon script of Indonesian. U+08B4 ‎ none 1 dot ك ك ڭ ڭـ ـڭـ ـڭ Ng, used to represent the /ŋ/ phone in Ottoman Turkish, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Uyghur, and to represent the /ɡ/ in Morocco and in many dialects of Algerian. U+06AD ‎ 3 dots none ك ك أي أيـ ـأيـ ـأي Ee, used to represent the phoneme /eː/ in Somali. U+0623 U+064A ◌ٔ ‎ Hamza 2 dots اى أ + ي ئ ئـ ـئـ ـئ E, used to represent the phoneme /e/ in Somali. U+0626 ◌ٔ ‎ Hamza none ى ي ی ىٓ ىٓـ ـىٓـ ـىٓ Ii, used to represent the phoneme /iː/ in Somali and Saraiki. U+0649 U+0653 ◌ٓ ‎ Madda none ى ي ؤ ؤ ـؤ O, used to represent the phoneme /o/ in Somali. U+0624 ◌ٔ ‎ Hamza none و ؤ ۅ ۅ ـۅ Ö, used to represent the phoneme /ø/ in Kyrgyz. U+0624 ◌̵ ‎ Strikethrough[D] none و و ې ېـ ـېـ ـې Pasta Ye, used to represent the phoneme /e/ in Pashto and Uyghur. U+06D0 ‎ none 2 dots vertical ى ي ی یـ ـیـ ـی Nārīna Ye, used to represent the phoneme [ɑj] and phoneme /j/ in Pashto. U+06CC 2 dots
(start + mid)
none ى ي ۍ ـۍ ‎ end
only X̌əźīna ye Ye, used to represent the phoneme [əi] in Pashto. U+06CD line horizontal
line
none ى ي ئ ئـ ـئـ ـئ Fāiliya Ye, used to represent the phoneme [əi] and /j/ in Pashto, Punjabi, Saraiki and Urdu U+0626 ◌ٔ ‎ Hamza none ى ي ى أو أو ـأو Oo, used to represent the phoneme /oː/ in Somali. U+0623 U+0648 ◌ٔ ‎ Hamza none او أ + و ﻭٓ ﻭٓ ـﻭٓ Uu, used to represent the phoneme /uː/ in Somali. ‎ + ◌ٓU+0648 U+0653 ◌ٓ ‎ Madda none و + ◌ٓ ڳ ڳـ ـڳـ ـڳ ‎ represents a voiced velar implosive /ɠ/ in Sindhi and Saraiki U+06B1 horizontal
line
2 dots گ ك ڱ ڱـ ـڱـ ـڱ ‎ represents the Velar nasal /ŋ/ phoneme in Sindhi. U+06B1 ‎ 2 dots + horizontal
line
none گ ك ک کـ ـکـ ـک Khē, represents /kʰ/ in Sindhi. U+06A9 none none none ک ك ڪ ڪـ ـڪـ ـڪ ‎ “Swash kāf” is a stylistic variant of ك ‎ in Arabic, but represents un- aspirated /k/ in Sindhi. U+06AA none none none ڪ ك or ڪ ݣ ݣـ ـݣـ ـݣ ‎ used to represent the phoneme /ŋ/ (pinyin ng) in Chinese. U+0763 ‎ none 3 dots ک ك ڼ ڼـ ـڼـ ـڼ ‎ represents the retroflex nasal /ɳ/ phoneme in Pashto. U+06BC ں ﮿ ‎ 1 dot ring ن ڻ ڻـ ـڻـ ـڻ ‎ represents the retroflex nasal /ɳ/ phoneme in Sindhi. U+06BB ◌ؕ ‎ small ط ‎ none ں ن ݨ ݨـ ـݨـ ـݨ ‎ used in Punjabi to represent /ɳ/ and Saraiki to represent /ɲ/. U+0768 ‎ 1 dot + small ط ‎ none ں ن ڽ ڽـ ـڽـ ـڽ Nya /ɲ/ in the Jawi script. U+06BD ‎ 3 dots none ں ن ۑ ۑـ ـۑـ ـۑ Nya /ɲ/ in the Pegon script. U+06D1 ‎ none 3 dots ى ى ڠ ڠـ ـڠـ ـڠ Nga /ŋ/ in the Jawi script and Pegon script. U+06A0 ‎ 3 dots none ع غ ݪ ݪـ ـݪـ ـݪ ‎ used in Marwari to represent a retroflex lateral flap /ɺ̢/, and in Kalami to represent a voiceless lateral fricative /ɬ/. U+076A line horizontal
line
none ل ل ࣇ‍ ‍ࣇ‍ ‍ࣇ – or alternately typeset as لؕ ‎ – is used in Punjabi to represent voiced retroflex lateral approximant /ɭ/[43] U+08C7 ◌ؕ ‎ small ط ‎ none ل ل لؕ لؕـ ـلؕـ ـلؕ U+0644 U+0615 ڥ ڥـ ـڥـ ـڥ Vi, used in Algerian and Tunisian when written in Arabic script to represent the sound /v/. U+06A5 ‎ none 3 dots ڡ ف ڤ ڤـ ـڤـ ـڤ Ve, used in by some Arabic speakers to represent the phoneme /v/ in loanwords, and in the Kurdish language when written in Arabic script to represent the sound /v/. Also used as pa /p/ in the Jawi script and Pegon script. U+06A4 ‎ 3 dots none ڡ ف ۏ ۏ ـۏ Va in the Jawi script. U+06CF ‎ 1 dot none و و ۋ ۋ ـۋ ‎ represents a voiced labiodental fricative /v/ in Kyrgyz, Uyghur, and Old Tatar; and /w, ʊw, ʉw/ in Kazakh; also formerly used in Nogai. U+06CB ‎ 3 dots none و و ۆ ۆ ـۆ ‎ represents “O” /o/ in Kurdish, and in Uyghur it represents the sound similar to the French eu and œu /ø/ sound. It represents the “у” close back rounded vowel /u/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+06C6 ◌ٚ V pointing down none و و ۇ ۇ ـۇ U, used to represents the Close back rounded vowel /u/ phoneme in Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Uyghur. U+06C7 ◌ُ Damma[E] none و و ێ ێـ ـێـ ـێ ‎ represents Ê or É /e/ in Kurdish. U+06CE ◌ٚ V pointing down 2 dots
(start + mid)
ى ي ھ
ھ ھـ ـھـ ـھ
ھھھ Do-chashmi he (two-eyed hāʼ), used in digraphs for aspiration /ʰ/ and breathy voice /ʱ/ in Punjabi and Urdu. Also used to represent /h/ in Kazakh, Sorani and Uyghur.[F] U+06BE none none none ھ ه ە ە ـە Ae, used represent /æ/ and /ɛ/ in Kazakh, Sorani and Uyghur. U+06D5 none none none ھ إ ے ـے ‎ end
only Baṛī ye (‘big yāʼ’), is a stylistic variant of ي in Arabic, but represents “ai” or “e” /ɛː/, /eː/ in Urdu and Punjabi. U+06D2 none none none ے ي ڞ ڞـ ـڞـ ـڞ ‎ used to represent the phoneme /tsʰ/ (pinyin c) in Chinese. U+069E ‎ 3 dots none ص ص ض ط طـ ـطـ ـط ‎ used to represent the phoneme /t͡s/ (pinyin z) in Chinese. U+0637 ط ط ۉ ۉ ـۉ ‎ represents the “o” open-mid back rounded vowel /ɔ/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+06C9 ◌ٛ V pointing up none و و ݩ ݩـ ـݩـ ـݩ ‎ represents the “њ” palatal nasal /ɲ/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+0769 ◌ٚ ‎ 1 dot
V pointing down none ں ن ڵ ڵـ ـڵـ ـڵ ‎ used in Kurdish to represent ll /ɫ/ in Soranî dialect. U+06B5 ◌ٚ V pointing down none ل ل ڵ ڵـ ـڵـ ـڵ ‎ represents the “љ” palatal lateral approximant /ʎ/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+06B5 ◌ٚ V pointing down none ل ل اٖى اٖىـ ـاٖىـ ـاٖى ‎ represents the “и” close front unrounded vowel /i/ phoneme in Bosnian. U+0627 U+0656 U+0649 ◌ٖ ‎ Alef none اى اٖ  +  ى