Bouteloua – Wikipedia

Genus of grasses

Grama grass
Bouteloua curtipendula.jpg
Bouteloua curtipendula
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Chloridoideae
Tribe: Cynodonteae
Subtribe: Boutelouinae
Genus: Bouteloua
Lag. 1805 not Hornem. ex P. Beauv. 1812[1][2]
Type species
Bouteloua racemosa
  • Actinochloa Roem. & Schult.
  • Antichloa Steud., name not validly published
  • Aristidium (Endl.) Lindl.
  • Atheropogon Muhl. ex Willd.
  • Botelua Lag., alternate spelling
  • Buchloe Engelm.
  • Buchlomimus Reeder, C.Reeder & Rzed.
  • Bulbilis Raf. ex Kuntze
  • Calanthera Hook., illegitimate homonym
  • Casiostega Galeotti, name not validly published
  • Corethrum Vahl
  • Cyclostachya Reeder & C.Reeder
  • Erucaria Cerv.
  • Eutriana Trin.
  • Fourniera Scribn.
  • Griffithsochloa G.J.Pierce
  • Heterosteca Desv.
  • Lasiostega Benth., illegitimate homonym
  • Nestlera Steud., illegitimate homonym
  • Opizia J.Presl
  • Pentarrhaphis Kunth
  • Pleiodon Rchb.
  • Polyodon Kunth
  • Polyschistis C.Presl
  • Pringleochloa Scribn.
  • Soderstromia C.V.Morton
  • Strombodurus Steud., name not validly published
  • Triaena Kunth
  • Triathera Desv.
  • Triplathera (Endl.) Lindl.

Bouteloua is a genus of plants in the grass family.[4][5] Members of the genus are commonly known as grama grass.[6]

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

The genus was named for Claudio and Esteban Boutelou, 19th-century Spanish botanists.[7][8]David Griffiths produced a 1912 monograph on the genus.[9]


The top of a hairy grama (Bouteloua hirsuta) flower spike, showing the flattened rachis

Bouteloua includes both annual and perennial grasses, which frequently form stolons.[9] Species have an inflorescence of 1 to 80 racemes or spikes positioned alternately on the culm (stem). The rachis (stem) of the spike is flattened. The spikelets are positioned along one side of the spike. Each spikelet contains one fertile floret, and usually one sterile floret.[10]


Bouteloua is found only the Americas, with most diversity centered in the southwestern United States.[9]

Many species are important livestock forage, especially blue grama.[9]


Species of Bouteloua include:[3][6][11][12][13]

  • Bouteloua alamosana Vasey – Mesoamerica
  • Bouteloua americana (L.) Scribn. – American grama – southern Mexico, Central America, West Indies, northern South America
  • Bouteloua annua Swallen – Baja California Sur, Sonora
  • Bouteloua aristidoides (Kunth) Griseb. – needle grama – United States (California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, Texas); Mexico, South America, Aruba
  • Bouteloua barbata Lag. – six-weeks grama – United States, Mexico
  • Bouteloua bracteata (McVaugh) Columbus – Michoacán
  • Bouteloua breviseta Vasey – United States, Mexico
  • Bouteloua chondrosioides (Kunth) Benth. ex S.Watson – sprucetop grama – United States (AZ TX); Mesoamerica
  • Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. – sideoats grama – widespread in USA, Canada, Mexico
  • Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) Columbus – buffalograss – USA, Canada, Mexico
  • Bouteloua dimorpha Columbus – Great Plains in USA, Canada, Mexico, Honduras, Cuba, Trinidad
  • Bouteloua distans Swallen – Mexico
  • Bouteloua disticha (Kunth) Benth. – from southern Mexico to Ecuador; also Cuba, Galápagos
  • Bouteloua eludens Griffiths – USA (Arizona, New Mexico), Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Sonora)
  • Bouteloua eriopoda (Torr.) Torr. – United States, Mexico
  • Bouteloua gracilis (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths – blue grama – Great Plains in USA, Canada, Mexico
  • Bouteloua hirsuta Lag. – USA (Great Plains, Southwest), Mexico, Guatemala
  • Bouteloua johnstonii Swallen – Coahuila
  • Bouteloua juncea (Desv. ex Beauv.) A.S.Hitchc. – lamilla – Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico
  • Bouteloua media (E.Fourn.) Gould & Kapadia – from central Mexico to Uruguay
  • Bouteloua megapotamica (Spreng.) Kuntze – Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia
  • Bouteloua mexicana (Scribn.) Columbus – Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras
  • Bouteloua multifida (Griffiths) Columbus – from Sonora to Oaxaca
  • Bouteloua nervata Swallen – Hidalgo, México State
  • Bouteloua parryi (E. Fourn.) Griffiths – Parry’s Grama, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Northern Mexico
  • Bouteloua pectinata (Bouteloua hirsuta var. pectinata) – tall grama, eyebrow grass – Texas
  • Bouteloua pedicellata Swallen – Puebla, Hidalgo, Guanajuato, Tlaxcala, Nuevo León, Veracruz
  • Bouteloua polymorpha (E.Fourn.) Columbus – from Durango to Oaxaca
  • Bouteloua purpurea Gould & Kapadia – Guanajuato, D.F., San Luis Potosí, México State, Hidalgo, Querétaro
  • Bouteloua radicosa (E. Fourn.) Griffiths – purple grama – USA (Arizona, New Mexico), Mexico (Chihuahua, Michoacán, Coahuila, Morelos, Puebla, Durango, Zacatecas, Distrito Federal de México, Jalisco, Nuevo León, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Tamaulipas)
  • Bouteloua reederorum Columbus – Durango, Puebla, Zacatecas, Oaxaca
  • Bouteloua reflexa Swallen – Sonora, Sinaloa, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Nayarit
  • Bouteloua repens (Kunth) Scribn. & Merr. – slender grama – Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Mesoamerica, Colombia, Venezuela, West Indies
  • Bouteloua rigidiseta (Steud.) Hitchc. – Texas grama – New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mexico (Aguascalientes, Durango)
  • Bouteloua simplex Lag. Much of southwestern and central United States, Central America, western South America
  • Bouteloua scabra (Kunth) Columbus – from Hidalgo to Honduras
  • Bouteloua stolonifera Scribn. – San Luis Potosí, Aguascalientes, Zacatecas
  • Bouteloua swallenii Columbus – from El Salvador to Venezuela
  • Bouteloua triaena (Trin. ex Spreng.) Scribn. – from Sinaloa to Guatemala
  • Bouteloua trifida Thunb. – Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, Mexico
  • Bouteloua uniflora Vasey – Nealley grama, oneflower grama – Utah, Texas, Coahuila, Zacatecas, Nuevo León, Querétaro, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas
  • Bouteloua vaneedenii Pilg. – Cuba, Leeward Islands, Venezuela
  • Bouteloua warnockii Gould & Kapadia – Warnock’s grama – New Mexico, Texas, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas
  • Bouteloua williamsii Swallen – Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras

Formerly included[edit]

Some grass species, formerly classified under Bouteloua, have been reclassified under other genera including:[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Bouteloua. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2018-07-13.
  2. ^ Bouteloua. Tropicos. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  3. ^ a b c Bouteloua. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  4. ^ Lagasca y Segura, Mariano. 1805. Variedades de Ciencias, Literatura y Artes 2(4,21): 134
  5. ^ Watson L, Dallwitz MJ. (2008). “The grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references”. The Grass Genera of the World. Retrieved 2009-08-19.
  6. ^ a b Bouteloua. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-03-04.
  7. ^ Peterson, P. M. & Y. Herrera-Arrieta. 2001. Bouteloua. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): II. Subfamily Chloridoideae. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 20–33
  8. ^ Gould, F. W. 1980. The genus Bouteloua (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 66(3): 348–416
  9. ^ a b c d Gould, Frank W. (1951). Grasses of Southwestern United States. University of Arizona Bulletin. Tucson: University of Arizona. pp. 139–140.
  10. ^ Sun, Bi-xing; Phillips, Sylvia M. Bouteloua. Flora of China. Vol. 22 – via, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  11. ^ “Species Records of Bouteloua. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2009-05-08. Retrieved 2011-03-04.
  12. ^ Bouteloua. County-level distribution maps from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014.
  13. ^ Gould, F. W. & R. Moran. 1981. The grasses of Baja California, Mexico. Memoir San Diego Society of Natural History 12: 1–140

External links[edit]