Chrysler K platform – Wikipedia
Motor vehicle platform
The K-car platform was a key automotive design platform introduced by Chrysler Corporation for the 1981 model year, featuring a transverse engine, front-wheel drive, independent front and semi-independent rear suspension configuration—a stark departure from the company’s previous reliance on solid axle, rear-drive body on subframe configurations. Derived from Chrysler’s L-cars, the Plymouth Horizon and Dodge Omni, the platform was developed just as the company faltered in the market, at first underpinning a modest range of compact/mid-size sedans and wagons—and eventually underpinning nearly fifty different models, including all-wheel drive variants—and playing a vital role in the company’s subsequent resurgence.
Use of a common platform is a widely used practice for reducing the number of parts and engineering time. Before creating the K platform, Chrysler was building vehicles from a small number of common platforms (e.g. F/L/J/M and R); however there were very few common parts among the different models. Chrysler CEO Lee Iacocca claimed that the huge number of parts in inventory and the complexity of building many completely different versions of vehicles was one reason Chrysler was losing money, and directed the engineers to focus on making a larger number of common parts where they would not be visible to customers; this was already common practice in Japan and Germany and would help to make the K-cars profitable even at low prices.
Arriving on the brink of Chrysler’s near certain financial collapse, the new platform had a dramatic effect, helping Chrysler report a profit in October 1980 of $10 million, its first profit in two years. A plethora of K-platform body styles and badge-engineered variants followed the original range, including the company’s minivans and upscale Chrysler division models. The platform interchangeability saved production and purchasing costs, initially costing Chrysler $1 billion over three years to develop, but only costing $50 million to generate the second group of badge-engineered variants, the LeBaron and Dodge 400. Within two years, the K platform vehicles accounted for roughly 50% of Chrysler’s operating profits.
In 1984, The New York Times said, “Not only did [K-cars] almost single handedly save Chrysler from certain death, they also provided the company with a vehicle that could be stretched, smoothed, poked, chopped and trimmed to create almost a dozen different models.”
We talk about all these cars being K car derivatives, which is correct, but that doesn’t mean they all have to have K car characteristics.
Through different selections of springs, shocks, tires, added sound insulation, improving rubber bushings, the character of the car can be changed quite dramatically. That has been the secret of being able to take a car of the K body compact class all the way up to the New Yorker luxury class.
L. Donald Gschwind
VP, Program Management
In 1984, David Lewis, auto industry historian and professor of business history at the University of Michigan said no platform “in the history of the automobile industry has so dramatically allowed a company to survive in such a substantial way. No company has been down so low, in such difficult straits, and then depended on practically a single product to bring it back.”
Following the 1973 oil crisis, compounded by the 1979 energy crisis, American consumers began to buy fuel-efficient, low-cost automobiles built in Japan. With the market for large V-8 engined automobiles declining, American domestic auto manufacturers found themselves trying to develop compact vehicles that could compete with the Japanese imports of Toyota, Honda, and Nissan in price and finish. Chrysler Corporation’s answer to the import pressure was the K platform, which featured an economical 4-cylinder engine, front-wheel drive, and used many modern weight-reducing measures such as replacing metal styling parts with plastic interior and exterior components.
The K-cars (Dodge Aries, Plymouth Reliant, Chrysler LeBaron, Dodge 400, and, in Mexico, Dodge Dart) sold over 2 million vehicles from 1981 to 1988, and around 100,000 in their final year, 1989.
The manual transmission provided acceleration of 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in 10 seconds, while the automatic was between 13 and 14 seconds, similar to or better than most competitors, while fuel economy was rated by the EPA at 26 mpg‑US (9.0 L/100 km; 31 mpg‑imp) city and 41 mpg‑US (5.7 L/100 km; 49 mpg‑imp) highway with the manual transmission. All had a 100.1-inch (2,540 mm) wheelbase. The overall length of the two- and four-door models was 176 inches (4,500 mm). The wagon was 0.2 inches (5.1 mm) longer. The vehicles had an approximate 14-US-gallon (53 l; 12 imp gal) fuel tank. The coupe and sedan had approximately 15 cubic feet (0.42 m3) of luggage space; the wagons, 35 cubic feet (0.99 m3) with the rear seat upright and about 70 cubic feet (2.0 m3) when folded down.
Numerous improvements to the sound insulation and general feel were made for the model year 1983. In 1985, the Reliant, Aries, and LeBaron received a facelift, with a rounded front fascia, smoother hood, and bigger taillights. In 1986, the cars began using fuel injection on the 2.2-liter engine and a 2.5-liter engine replaced the arguably unreliable Mitsubishi 2.6-liter engine, which was notorious for leaking oil and generated nicknames like “Mr. Squishy” or “Bitsumishi.”
They were initially very profitable, and Iacocca credited them with allowing the company to pay off its bankruptcy loans early.
The K-derivatives offered a large variety of engines depending on year and model. Four-cylinder engines were initially equipped with carburetors; fuel injection was phased in beginning in 1986. Engine output ranged from 86 hp (64 kW) to 224 hp (167 kW). Most vehicles had the 2.2 L or 2.5 L Chrysler four-cylinder engine; however, from 1981 to 1985, a 2.6 L four and from 1987 to 1995 a 3.0 L V6, both made by Mitsubishi, were offered.
- K mid-size cars
- 1981–1989 Dodge Aries (often referred to as the Aries K, owing to strong publicity for the K cars; 1981 models are badged as such.)
- 1981–1989 Plymouth Reliant (as above, also known as the Reliant K)
- 1982–1988 Chrysler LeBaron (coupes and convertibles were produced on this platform until 1986)
- 1982–1988 Chrysler LeBaron Town and Country
- 1982–1983 Dodge 400
- 1982–1985 Dodge Dart K (Mexico only)
- 1982–1985 Valiant Volare K (2-door) (Mexico only)
- 1986–1988 Dart by Chrysler (2-door and wagon) (Mexico only)
- 1986–1988 Volare by Chrysler (2-door) (Mexico only)
- 1986–1987 Volare by Chrysler (4-door) (Mexico only)
- 1983–1988 Plymouth Caravelle coupe (Canada only)
- 1984–1986 Dodge 600 coupe and convertible
- 1984–1987 Dodge Magnum 400 and Dodge Magnum Turbo (Mexico only)
- 1985 Chrysler 600 coupe and convertible (Mexico only)
- E (Extended-wheelbase) mid-size cars
- G sports cars (designated as the AG platform from 1989)
- S minivans
- H mid-size cars
- P compact cars (designated as the AP platform from 1989)
- J sport cars (designated as the AJ platform from 1989)
- 1987–1995 Chrysler LeBaron coupe and convertible
- 1988–1994 Chrysler Phantom coupe only (Mexico only)
- C mid-size cars (designated as the AC platform from 1989)
- AA mid-size cars
- Q sports car
- Y luxury cars (a stretched variant of the C platform used for two top-line models, also designated as the AY platform)
- AS minivans