Toxorhynchites – Wikipedia

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Genus of flies

Toxorhynchites, also called elephant mosquito or mosquito eater, is a genus of diurnal and often relatively colorful mosquitoes, found worldwide between about 35° north and 35° south. Most species occur in forests. It includes the largest known species of mosquito, at up to 18 mm (0.71 in) in length and 24 mm (0.94 in) in wingspan.[1] It is among the many kinds of mosquito that do not consume blood. The adults subsist on carbohydrate-rich materials, such as honeydew, or saps and juices from damaged plants, refuse, fruit, and nectar.[2]

Mating in mid-air, males and females synchronize their wing beats to the same frequency.[3][4] Eggs are deposited by flinging them onto water surfaces while hovering.[3] They are either white or yellow in color, with an incubation period of 40–60 hours depending on the temperature. The older the female mosquito, the less likely the eggs will be healthy.[5]

In contrast to blood-sucking species of mosquitoes, their larvae prey on the larvae of other mosquitoes and similar nektonic prey, making Toxorhynchites beneficial to humans.[1] Living on this protein- and fat-rich diet, they have no need to risk their lives sucking blood in adulthood, having already accumulated the necessary materials for oogenesis and vitellogenesis. The larvae of one jungle variety, Toxorhynchites splendens, consume larvae of other mosquito species occurring in tree crevices, particularly Aedes aegypti.

Environmental scientists have suggested that Toxorhynchites mosquitoes be introduced to areas outside their natural range in order to fight dengue fever. This has been practiced historically, but errors have been made. For example, when intending to introduce T. splendens to new areas, scientists actually introduced T. amboinensis.[5] Also an extinct species T. mexicanus is known from Miocene aged Mexican Amber.[6]

Male Toxorhynchites rutilus on goldenrod

Species[edit]

The genus Toxorhynchites is divided into 4 subgenera and contains 90 species also included 1 extinct species:[7]

  • Toxorhynchites bambusicola Lutz and Neiva, 1913
  • Toxorhynchites brevipalpis Theobald, 1991
  • Toxorhynchites christophi Portschinsky, 1884
  • Toxorhynchites grandiosus Williston, 1900
  • Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis Dyar and Knab, 1906
  • Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis Fabricius, 1787
  • Toxorhynchites hexacis Martini, 1901
  • Toxorhynchites mariae Bourroul, 1904
  • Toxorhynchites minimus (Theobald, 1905)
  • Toxorhynchites moctezuma Dyar and Knab, 1906
  • Toxorhynchites portoricensis Roeder, 1885[8]
  • Toxorhynchites purpureus Theobald, 1901
  • Toxorhynchites pusillus Lima, 1931
  • Toxorhynchites rajah Tsukamoto, 1986
  • Toxorhynchites rutilus Coquillett, 1896
  • Toxorhynchites solstitialis Lutz, 1904
  • Toxorhynchites speciosus Skuse, 1889
  • Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann, 1819
  • Toxorhynchites theobaldi Dyar and Knab, 1906
  • Toxorhynchites trichopygus Wiedemann, 1828
  • Toxorhynchites violaceus Wiedemann, 1821
  • Toxorhynchites inornatus (Walker, 1865)
  • Toxorhynchites acaudatus (Leicester, 1908)
  • Toxorhynchites aurifluus (Edwards, 1921)
  • Toxorhynchites bickleyi Thurman, 1959
  • Toxorhynchites funestus (Leicester, 1908)
  • Toxorhynchites gigantulus Dyar & Shannon, 1925
  • Toxorhynchites gravelyi (Edwards, 1921)
  • Toxorhynchites klossi (Edwards, 1921)
  • Toxorhynchites leicesteri Theobald, 1904
  • Toxorhynchites magnificus (Leicester, 1908)
  • Toxorhynchites manopi Thurman, 1959
  • Toxorhynchites metallicus Leicester, 1904
  • Toxorhynchites nigripes (Edwards, 1935)
  • Toxorhynchites amboinensis (Doleschall, 1857)
  • Toxorhynchites kamoisi (van Someren, 1946)
  • Toxorhynchites moctezuma (Dyar and Knab, 1906)
  • Toxorhynchites longgianeolata (Farghal, 1983)
  • Toxorhynchites lewisi Ribeiro, 1991
  • Toxorhynchites madagascarensis Ribeiro, 2004
  • Toxorhynchites manicatus (Edwards, 1921)
  • Toxorhynchites nairobiensi (van Someren, 1946)
  • Toxorhynchites nepenthicola Steffan and Evenhuis, 1982
  • Toxorhynchites nigeriensis Ribeiro, 2005
  • Toxorhynchites okinawensis Toma, Miyagi and Tanaka, 1990
  • Toxorhynchites pauliani (Doucet, 1951)
  • Toxorhynchites phytophagus Theobald, 1909
  • Toxorhynchites pendleburyi (Edwards, 1930)
  • Toxorhynchites ramalingami Evenhuis and Steffan, 1986
  • Toxorhynchites rickenbachi Ribeiro, 1991
  • Toxorhynchites raris (Leicester, 1908)
  • Toxorhynchites rizzoi (de Deus Palma and Galvão, 1969)
  • Toxorhynchites rodhaini Ribeiro, 1991
  • Toxorhynchites ruwenzori (van Someren, 1948)
  • Toxorhynchites sumatranus (Brug, 1939)
  • Toxorhynchites tyagii Krishnamoorthy et al., 2013
  • Toxorhynchites wolfsi Ribeiro, 2005
  • Toxorhynchites angustiplatus Evenhuis and Steffan, 1986
  • Toxorhynchites edwardsi (Barraud, 1924)
  • Toxorhynchites erythrurus (Edwards, 1941)
  • Toxorhynchites evansae (Edwards, 1936)
  • Toxorhynchites fontenillei Ribeiro, 2004
  • Toxorhynchites gerbergi Belkin, 1977
  • Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab, 1906)
  • Toxorhynchites grjebinei Ribeiro, 2004
  • Toxorhynchites hypoptes (Knab, 1907)
  • Toxorhynchites indicus Evenhuis and Steffan, 1986
  • Toxorhynchites helenae Ribeiro, 1992
  • Toxorhynchites cavalieri García and Casal, 1967
  • Toxorhynchites coeruleus (Brug, 1934)
  • Toxorhynchites darjeelingensis Tyagi, Munirathinam, Krishnamoorthy et al., 2015
  • Toxorhynchites catharinensis (da Costa Lima, Guitoon and Ferreira, 1962)
  • Toxorhynchites capelai Ribeiro, 1992
  • Toxorhynchites camaronis Ribeiro, 1991
  • Toxorhynchites brunhesi Ribeiro, 2004
  • Toxorhynchites bengalensis Rosenberg and Evenhuis, 1985
  • Toxorhynchites ater (Daniels, 1908)
  • Toxorhynchites aeneus (Evans, 1926)
  • Toxorhynchites albipes (Edwards, 1922)
  • Toxorhynchites dundo Ribeiro, 1991
  • Toxorhynchites lutescens (Theobald, 1901)
  • Toxorhynchites macaensis Ribeiro, 1997
  • Toxorhynchites macaensis Ribeiro, 1997
  • Toxorhynchites zairensis Ribeiro, 2005
  • Toxorhynchites virdibasis (Edwards, 1935)
  • Toxorhynchites kempi (Edwards, 1921)
  • Toxorhynchites quasiferox (Leicester, 1908)
  • Toxorhynchites lemuriae Ribeiro, 2004
  • Toxorhynchites nepenthis (Dyar and Shannon, 1925)
  • Toxorhynchites angolensis Ribeiro, 1992
  • Toxorhynchites mexicanus Zavortink & Poinar, 2008

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cook, G.C.; Zumla, A (2009). Manson’s Tropical Diseases (22 ed.). Saunders Elsevier. p. 1735. ISBN 978-1-4160-4470-3.
  2. ^ Bonnet, D. D.; Hu, S. M. K. (1951). “The Introduction of Toxorhynchites brevipalpis Theobald into the Territory of Hawaii”. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 14 (2): 237–242. hdl:10125/16231.
  3. ^ a b Hansen, Cypress (19 August 2021). “The Secret Lives of Mosquitoes, the World’s Most Hated Insects”. Smithsonian Voices.
  4. ^ Gibson, Gabriella; Russell, Ian (July 2006). “Flying in Tune: Sexual Recognition in Mosquitoes”. Current Biology. 16 (13): 1311–1316. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.05.053. PMID 16824918. S2CID 11833769.
  5. ^ a b Collins, Larissa E.; Blackwell, Alison (2000). “The biology of Toxorhynchites mosquitoes and their potential as biocontrol agents”. Biocontrol News and Information. 21 (4): 105–116.
  6. ^ Zavortink, Thomas J.; Poinar, George O. (January 2008). “Toxorhynchites (toxorhynchites) mexicanus, N. SP. (Diptera: Culicidae) from Mexican Amber: A New World Species with Old World Affinities”. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 110 (1): 116–125. doi:10.4289/0013-8797-110.1.116. S2CID 85578548.
  7. ^ Toxorhynchites at the Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  8. ^ Röder, V. von (1885). “Diptera von Insel Portorico”. Entomologische Zeitung [de]. 46: 337–349.

External links[edit]