BMT Canarsie Line – Wikipedia

New York City Subway line

The BMT Canarsie Line (sometimes referred to as the 14th Street–Eastern Line) is a rapid transit line of the B Division of the New York City Subway system, named after its terminus in the Canarsie neighborhood of Brooklyn. It is served by the L train at all times, which is shown in medium gray on the New York City Subway map and on station signs.

The line is part of the BMT Eastern Division, and is occasionally referred to as the Eastern District Line. This refers to Williamsburg, which was described as Brooklyn’s “Eastern District” when the City of Williamsburg was annexed by the former City of Brooklyn. This was the location where the original Brooklyn subway portions of the line were laid out. Only later was the line connected to the tracks leading to Canarsie. Eastern District High School, near the line’s Grand Street station, had preserved this toponym until it was closed in 1996, later reopened as Grand Street Educational Campus.

The Canarsie Line was first a steam railroad, then a Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT), later Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation (BMT), elevated line. It was extended into Manhattan via subway in 1924–1928. Since the early 2000s, the line’s signal system has been converted to an automated system. The Manhattan section of the line was partially closed during off-peak hours from early 2019 to April 2020 to allow for a renovation of the 14th Street Tunnel, which the line uses to cross the East River.

Extent and service[edit]

Services that use the Canarsie Line are colored medium gray. The following service uses all of the Canarsie Line:[2]

  Time period Section of line
All times Entire line

The Canarsie Line runs from Eighth Avenue and 14th Street in Manhattan to Rockaway Parkway in Canarsie, Brooklyn. It is double-tracked along its entire length, except for short stretches of layup track in Manhattan and Brooklyn.[3]

Overview of the BMT Canarsie Line

The current line is a two-track subway from its Manhattan terminal to Broadway Junction in the East New York section of Brooklyn, with the exception of a short stretch at Wilson Avenue where it is a double-decked structure with the southbound track outdoors directly above the indoor, ground-level northbound track. Although the northbound track appears to be underground, it is in fact outdoors at ground-level for there are no stairs leading from the northbound platform to the station entrance at the dead-end of Wilson Avenue, southeast of Moffat Street. This is due to the line being pressed directly against the New York Connecting Railroad, which is pressed directly against the border of Trinity Cemetery. There are no express tracks on the Canarsie line; thus, all trains run local service throughout their route.[3] However, in the past, express service has been run between Lorimer Street and Myrtle Avenue by skipping stops via the local tracks. This last operated in August 1956.[4][5]

Just before Broadway Junction, the line emerges onto an elevated structure, passing over the BMT Jamaica Line. Between Broadway Junction and Atlantic Avenue are the Canarsie Line’s only track connections to the rest of the system, via flyover ramps connecting the Canarsie line to the Jamaica Line and East New York Yard (and, until 1956, the Fulton Street Elevated). The Canarsie Line used to share the structure at Atlantic Avenue with the connection from the Broadway and Fulton Street elevated lines to the Liberty Avenue Elevated (still extant further east as part of the IND Fulton Street Line).[3]

East of Pitkin Avenue, the Canarsie Line enters the two-track elevated structure on which the line was originally grade-separated in 1906, entering Sutter Avenue station. At the next station, Livonia Avenue, the Livonia Avenue Elevated of the IRT New Lots Line passes overhead, and just beyond this point is a single track connection to the Linden Shops, which is now a track and structures facility. Besides the connection at Broadway Junction, this non-electrified yard connection is the only other connection to the rest of the subway system, as it is indirectly a connection to the New Lots Line. B Division-sized equipment cannot access this line, however, because of A Division width restrictions.[3]

Beyond the next station, New Lots Avenue, the elevated structure ends, and an incline brings the Canarsie down to the original 1865 surface right-of-way, the second-oldest such right-of-way on the New York City Transit Authority system. The line operates on this ground-level route to the end of the line at Rockaway Parkway.[3]

As with other BMT Eastern Division lines, the Canarsie Line can accommodate trains with eight 60-foot-long (18 m) or eight 67-foot-long (20 m) cars. Due to the narrow turning radiuses of the lines, 75-foot-long (23 m) cars (R44, R46, R68, R68A) could not be used on the Eastern Division.[6]: 57  All platforms on the Canarsie Line are at least 518 feet (158 m) long, but only one station, Sixth Avenue, can accommodate 600-foot-long (180 m) trains without the need for extensions. Additionally, about half of stations on the Canarsie Line can fit trains with nine 60-foot-long cars, though the front and back ends of the trains would overshoot the platform at many of these stations.[6]: 58 


Steam and elevated era[edit]

Junction with New Lots Line

Before becoming a BRT elevated line in 1906, the Canarsie Line operated as a steam dummy line. It was first owned by the Brooklyn and Rockaway Beach Railroad, chartered December 24, 1863, and opened October 21, 1865,[7]: 101  from the Long Island Rail Road in East New York to a pier at Canarsie Landing, very close to the current junction of Rockaway Parkway and the Belt Parkway, where ferries continued on to Rockaway. The line was single-tracked until 1894.[8]

The Canarsie Railroad was chartered on May 8, 1906, as a BRT subsidiary (leased to the Brooklyn Union Elevated Railroad) and acquired the line on May 31, 1906.[7]: 192  The line was partly elevated, and electrified with third rail on the elevated part and trolley wire on the rest, south of New Lots Avenue. The Long Island Rail Road, which had used the line north of New Lots to access their Bay Ridge Branch, built a new line just to the west. The East New York terminus was extended several blocks along a section of line formerly used for “East New York Loop” service to the Fulton Street Elevated and the Broadway Elevated (now the BMT Jamaica Line), at a point known as Manhattan Junction (now Broadway Junction).[8]

Service first ran on July 28, 1906, from Canarsie Landing to the Broadway Ferry at the foot of Broadway in Williamsburg, at the East River. This route still exists as the BMT Jamaica Line, except for the last piece to the East River, where the Jamaica Line runs over the Williamsburg Bridge. The route was later extended over the bridge and along the BMT Nassau Street Line to Canal Street and then Chambers Street.[8]

Dual Contracts rebuilding[edit]

The Dual Contracts subway expansion scheme was formalized in early 1913, specifying new lines or expansions to be built by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and the BRT.[9] It saw the rebuilding of the complex train junction at Manhattan Junction into an even more complex flyover junction now known as Broadway Junction. The expansion extended south to the point at which the Canarsie and Fulton Street Elevateds diverged, including a six-track, three-platform station at Atlantic Avenue. The complex was rebuilt under traffic and opened in stages, reaching completion in 1919.[8]

At the same time, the BRT moved to eliminate remaining operations that required elevated trains to operate under overhead wire. In most cases this meant using third rail on fully grade-separated lines. When third rail was extended on the Canarsie Line it was decided to extend this power mode only as far as the important station at Rockaway Parkway and Glenwood Road. Beyond that point, frequent grade crossings made third rail impractical. This portion of the line was converted to the Canarsie Shuttle using elevated cars in October 1917 and converted to trolley cars on October 18, 1920.[8][10]

One grade crossing was retained at East 105th Street despite the third rail, and was the last public rapid transit grade crossing in New York City.[11] It was closed by 1973[12] as part of the Flatlands Industrial Park project, which was built on either side of the ground-level Canarsie Line. A pedestrian overpass above the tracks was built to replace the grade crossing.[13]

14th Street–Eastern Line[edit]

Initial subway[edit]

The Dual Contracts also called for a subway line initially known as the 14th Street–Eastern District Line, usually shortened to 14th Street–Eastern Line. The line would run beneath 14th Street in Manhattan, from Sixth Avenue under the East River and through Williamsburg to Montrose and Bushwick Avenues in Brooklyn.[14]Booth and Flinn was awarded the contract to construct the line on January 13, 1916.[15]Clifford Milburn Holland served as the engineer-in-charge during the construction.[16] A groundbreaking ceremony was held on April 8, 1916.[17][18]

The line’s opening was delayed by several years. In 1922, John Francis Hylan blocked some construction contracts, claiming that the costs were excessively high.[19] The Station Finish Corporation was contracted to build the stations in Brooklyn and the Charles H. Brown & Son Corporation was contracted to build the stations in Manhattan.[20] Track-laying in the tunnels between Sixth and Montrose Avenues started by November 1922.[21]

Due to the city’s failure to approve the section of the line between Montrose Avenue and East New York, the 14th Street/Eastern Line was initially isolated from the rest of the system. In 1924, a temporary connection was built from the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR)’s Bushwick Yard that ran via Montrose Avenue and then connected to the 14th Street/Eastern Line under Bushwick Avenue just near the Montrose Avenue station. This was done to allow the delivery of BMT Standard subway cars. The first of the cars were delivered by this ramp on June 20, 1924.[22] On June 30, 1924, the section between Sixth Avenue in Manhattan and Montrose Avenue in Brooklyn opened.[23][24] The terminal in Brooklyn was close to the Bushwick station of the Long Island Rail Road’s Bushwick Branch. Initial service was provided by three-car trains running every seven and a half minutes.[25] The line collected 9,196 fares in its first day of operation, which constituted its entire ridership for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1924. Ridership rose from 15 million in fiscal 1925 to 23 million in fiscal 1928.[26]


For the extension of the 14th Street/Eastern Line from Montrose Avenue to East New York, the New York City Board of Estimate had initially given its consent to an elevated line over the Evergreen Branch of the LIRR. The Board of Estimate subsequently refused to allow a construction contract for the elevated line, while the BRT did not want to build an underground line.[20] The extension was changed to an underground alignment following opposition from industries on the Evergreen Branch. In July 1924, the New York City Board of Transportation (BOT) approved a modified route for recommendation to the Board of Estimate. The route would be wholly underground and consist of three tracks. From Montrose Avenue, it would curve east under McKibbin Street, private property, and Harrison Place. Past Varick Avenue, it would turn southeast to Wyckoff Avenue, underneath which it would run to Eldert Street. This plan was to cost $8 million.[27]

In September 1924, the BOT approved the remaining section of the route between Eldert Street and Broadway Junction in East New York. East of Eldert Street, the route would turn south to a ground-level alignment parallel to the LIRR’s Bay Ridge Branch, then run southeast in a tunnel underneath private property to the intersection of Eastern Parkway and Bushwick Avenue, where it would emerge onto a ramp leading to the existing Canarsie elevated.[28] An ornamental viaduct over Bushwick Avenue and Eastern Parkway was removed from the original plans due to opposition from property owners who called it a “Chinese wall”.[29] The BOT also dropped a plan to have a connection from the new subway extension to the Jamaica Line to and from 168th Street, since adding such a connection would slow the movement of trains.[30] This route was adopted by the Board of Estimate the following month.[31][32] Three contracts for the construction of the extension were awarded in December at a total cost of $9,531,204. The section from Montrose Avenue to Varick Avenue was awarded to the Underpinning and Foundation Company, while the section from Varick Avenue to Bleecker Street and from Bleecker Street to Halsey Street went to the Oakdale Contracting Company.[33]

Another delay occurred in November 1925 regarding the alignment of the 14th Street/Eastern Line along a three-block section from Cooper Street to Central Avenue, which was to parallel the Bay Ridge Branch. This section, near what is now the Wilson Avenue station, was to run between the LIRR tracks to the west and the Cemetery of the Evergreens and the Most Holy Trinity Cemetery to the east. This section would contain portals for the subway to rise to ground level on either side of the Wilson Avenue station, with space separating the LIRR and subway tracks. However, the LIRR said it needed the space for overhead electrification poles as a result of the Kaufman Act and that these poles would prevent the construction of the subway portals.[34] In January 1926, the Oakdale Contracting Company submitted a low bid of $1,345,778 for the section from Halsey Street to Cooper Street.[35]

On July 14, 1928, the line was extended further east beneath Wyckoff Avenue and then south paralleling the Bay Ridge Branch to a new station at Broadway Junction, above the existing station on the Broadway Elevated (Jamaica Line). At this time, it was connected to the Canarsie Line.[36][37][38] At noon on May 30, 1931, a two-block extension to Eighth Avenue in Manhattan was opened, allowing passengers to transfer to the new IND Eighth Avenue Line. This station was built to look like the other Independent Subway stations. At this point, the Canarsie Line’s route took the shape that it still has to this day.[39]

Mid- to late 20th century[edit]

Express service operated along the line along the local track, skipping all stops between Myrtle Avenue and Lorimer Street. This service pattern stopped in August 1956.[4][5]

On November 23, 1942, the Canarsie Shuttle trolley line to Canarsie Landing was replaced by the B42 bus; the 1.5 miles (2.4 km)-long right-of-way was abandoned.[40] Parts were built over, and other parts can still be seen as broad alleys or narrow parking lots. This right-of-way ran between East 95th and East 96th Streets as far south as Seaview Avenue. Some trolley poles from the line still exist,[41][42] but the line’s right-of-way was destroyed by developments in the area.[43]

By the 1980s, the Canarsie Line was proposed for closure, as it was dilapidated and only had a ridership of 40,000 a day.[8]

Early 21st century upgrades[edit]

Automation and post-automation[edit]

The automation of the Canarsie Line required the purchase of the R143 orders on the L route, which runs on the Canarsie Line.

The Canarsie Line is one of only two New York City non-shuttle subway lines that hosts only a single service and does not share operating trackage with any other line or service; the other is the IRT Flushing Line, carrying the 7 and <7>​ trains. Because of this, it was chosen as the location of the first fully automated line of the New York City Subway.[44] The automation project was among the first in the world to use a radio frequency-based system. The plans for installation were laid out between 1999 and 2002. Communications-based train control (CBTC) was installed in pieces between 2003 and January 2006: the elevated section of the line south of Broadway Junction was completed first, followed by the underground section north of Broadway Junction. The project cost $340 million, with $78 million of it used to upgrade track interlockings on the line.[44]

In spring 2005, the current CBTC-enabled R143-class equipment was expected to run under full automation with a single operator (known as OPTO, or One Person Train Operation) acting as an attendant to monitor the train’s operation and take over manual operation if necessary. However, technical mishaps including the test train rolling away by itself delayed the start of automatic train operation.[44] The project caused numerous service disruptions on the L at night and on weekends. Frequently, service was shut down in separate sections of the line, usually from Eighth Avenue to Lorimer Street, Lorimer to Broadway Junction, or Broadway Junction to Rockaway Parkway. During this time, shuttle buses served suspended areas. This project also required the temporary closing of some stations, either in one direction or both directions, and for the line to be operated in two sections.[44]

In June 2005, the Canarsie Line ran full-length 480 feet (150 m) trains with a single operator on weekends. However, as this was a violation of union contracts – which stipulated that there must be one operator per 300 feet (91 m) of train – the MTA was ordered to resume two-person operation at all times.[44]

The system became operational as of February 2009.[45] Automation was achieved with the R143s assigned exclusively to the L, but since the R160As were not CBTC-compatible until August 2010, some trains were manually operated alongside automatically driven trains.[46] The L fully began automatic train operation in early 2012.[47] The CBTC installation increased the train capacity on the line from 20 trains per hour (tph) to 24 tph,[48] as well as permitted the installation of countdown clocks, which show the amount of time until the next train arrives.[44]

14th Street Tunnel shutdown[edit]

Tunnels flooded by Hurricane Sandy

In January 2016, the BMT Canarsie Line between Bedford and Eighth Avenues was proposed for a partial or full shutdown so that the MTA could repair tunnels damaged by Hurricane Sandy in 2012.[49] The repairs are slated to start in April 2019 and would replace damaged communications, power and signal wires, third rails and tracks, duct banks, pump rooms, circuit breaker houses, tunnel lighting, concrete lining, and fire protection systems.[50][51]

The renovations would cost between $800 million and $1 billion.[49] There were two options: a partial closure for three years or a full closure for 18 months.[52] It was later announced that the MTA had chosen the 18-month full closure option.[53][54][55] To provide alternate service, the MTA devised preliminary mitigation plans in which it proposed adding shuttle bus, ferry, and subway service; adding bus and high-occupancy vehicle lanes; extending train routes; and providing free or improved transfers.[56] The MTA named Judlau Contracting and TC Electric as the project’s contractors on April 3, 2017. At this time, the duration of the shutdown was shortened to 15 months, so the shutdown would begin in April instead of in January.[57]: 41  In June 2018, as part of a lawsuit settlement, additional changes were made to the shutdown mitigation plans.[58][59]

The shutdown was expected to begin on April 27, 2019.[60] In January 2019, the shutdown was changed to limited closures between Third Avenue and Bedford Avenue on late nights and weekends. It was expected to last about 15 to 20 months.[61] On April 26, 2020, New York governor Andrew Cuomo announced the completion of the project, months ahead of schedule.[62][63]

Service patterns[edit]

Service patterns over this line have varied little through the years; initially, trains ran over the Broadway Elevated from the ferry in Williamsburg (later extended into Manhattan), through Manhattan Junction and on to Canarsie. Then when the subway opened, two services ran from Canarsie to Manhattan: the original route on the Broadway Elevated and the route to 14th Street as the 14th Street-Canarsie Line.

In 1936, due to the institution of new lightweight subway-elevated equipment, a new rush-hour-only service was inaugurated from Eighth Avenue and 14th Street to Lefferts Boulevard at the east end of the Liberty Avenue Elevated (the continuation of the Fulton Street Elevated). The Eighth Avenue–Canarsie route was given BMT marker 16, and trains running to Lefferts Boulevard usually were marked as 13.[64] When the Fulton Street El was torn down, some rush-hour Broadway trains ran through from the Broadway Elevated (Jamaica Line) to Canarsie via the flyover at Broadway Junction; these were marked as 14.[65] In 1967, when all BMT services were given letters, the 16, which used the full Canarsie Line, was designated as LL. The rush-hour Broadway service (14) was designated JJ.[66] The JJ ran until 1968 when it was replaced by the KK which stayed on the Jamaica Line instead of switching to the Canarsie Line at Broadway Junction. The flyover connection has not been used by any regular revenue service since then.[67]

Skip-stop service proposal[edit]

In 1991, skip-stop service was proposed in order to speed service during the height of rush hours in the peak direction which would have reduced the running time from 41 minutes to 37 minutes. Under this plan, the K designation, which was previously used as the Broadway Brooklyn Local from 1967 to 1976, and as the Eighth Avenue Local from 1985 to 1988, would be repurposed and would appear in a gray bullet similar to the color the L uses. Both services would have common stops at Rockaway Parkway, Broadway Junction (then called Eastern Parkway), Myrtle Avenue, Lorimer Street, First Avenue, Union Square, Sixth Avenue and Eighth Avenue. L trains would stop at East 105th Street, Livonia Avenue, Atlantic Avenue, Wilson Avenue, DeKalb Avenue, Morgan Avenue, Grand Street, and Bedford Avenue; K trains would stop at New Lots Avenue, Sutter Avenue, Bushwick Avenue–Aberdeen Street, Halsey Street, Jefferson Street, Montrose Avenue, Graham Avenue and Third Avenue. This change was proposed as a service improvement alongside other changes that would have either reduced or eliminated service in order to balance the MTA’s operational budget, but was never implemented.[68]

Chaining information[edit]

The entire line is chained BMT Q. This has no relation whatsoever to lettered train service that operates on the line, which is designated L.[3] The tracks on the line are labeled Q1 towards Canarsie and Q2 towards Manhattan.[3]

Chaining zero is BMT Q, now located at the compass western end of the line at Eighth Avenue and 14th Street in Manhattan. The entire Canarsie Line is coextensive with chaining letter BMT Q and this chaining letter is used for no other line.[3]Railroad north on this line is towards Manhattan, and corresponds roughly to a northwesterly to westerly compass direction.[3]

2004 chaining revision[edit]

Prior to 2004, the chaining on the Canarsie Line reflected its historic origin. The original elevated right-of-way from the point where it split with the old Fulton Street Elevated at Pitkin and Van Sinderen Avenues in 1906 was designated as BRT chaining line P, and chaining zero for that section was at the same location.[3]

The portion of the 14th Street–Canarsie Line built or rehabilitated under the Dual Contracts and opened in 1924 and 1928 was designated BMT Q beginning at Sixth Avenue and 14th Street in Manhattan and extending to the beginning of BMT P chaining at Pitkin Avenue. Chaining zero for the BMT Q chaining line was also at Sixth Avenue.[3]

When the line was extended to Eighth Avenue in 1931, chaining zero for the BMT Q chaining line was not moved. Rather than change all the signal designations and chaining stations on the line, the new section was extended west from the same zero and designated chaining line BMT QW.[3]

When the installation of automated train operation required the complete replacement of the signal system, the MTA decided to make the entire line BMT Q and move chaining zero to the current compass western end of the line. Therefore, the chaining station of every location on the line had to be changed, a situation rarely seen since the Dual Contracts changes on the old BRT circa 1920.[3]

Station listing[edit]

Disabled access Station Opened Transfers and notes
Chelsea Disabled access Eighth Avenue May 30, 1931[39] all timesall except late nightsall times (IND Eighth Avenue Line)
M14A / M14D Select Bus Service
Sixth Avenue June 30, 1924[69] all timesall timesall except late nights (IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line at 14th Street)
all times two rush hour trains, peak directionWeekday rush hours, middays and early evenings (IND Sixth Avenue Line at 14th Street)
Connection to PATH at 14th Street
M14A / M14D Select Bus Service
Union Square Disabled access Union Square June 30, 1924[69] all timesall timesall except late nightsweekdays only (BMT Broadway Line)
all timesall times except late nightsall times <6> weekdays until 8:45 p.m., peak direction (IRT Lexington Avenue Line)
M14A / M14D Select Bus Service
East Village Third Avenue June 30, 1924[69] M14A / M14D Select Bus Service
Disabled access First Avenue June 30, 1924[69] M14A / M14D Select Bus Service
Northbound M15 Select Bus Service
14th Street Tunnel under the East River
Williamsburg Disabled access Bedford Avenue June 30, 1924[69]
Lorimer Street June 30, 1924[69] all times (IND Crosstown Line at Metropolitan Avenue)
Graham Avenue June 30, 1924[69]
Grand Street June 30, 1924[69]
East Williamsburg Montrose Avenue June 30, 1924[69]
Morgan Avenue July 14, 1928[37]
Bushwick Jefferson Street July 14, 1928[37]
DeKalb Avenue July 14, 1928[37]
Disabled access Myrtle–Wyckoff Avenues July 14, 1928[37] all times (BMT Myrtle Avenue Line)
originally Myrtle Avenue
Halsey Street July 14, 1928[37]
Bushwick Disabled access ↑ Wilson Avenue July 14, 1928[37] Station is ADA-accessible in the northbound direction only.
Bushwick Avenue–Aberdeen Street July 14, 1928[37]
East New York Broadway Junction July 14, 1928[37] all timesrush hours, peak direction (BMT Jamaica Line)
all timesall except late nights (IND Fulton Street Line)
connecting tracks to BMT Jamaica Line (no regular service)
connecting track to East New York Yard
East New York/Brownsville Atlantic Avenue July 28, 1906 Connection to LIRR at East New York
Sutter Avenue July 28, 1906
Disabled access Livonia Avenue July 28, 1906 MetroCard/OMNY transfer to IRT New Lots Line (all times except late nightslate nights only) at Junius Street
connecting track to Linden Shops (No third rail; diesel work trains only)
New Lots Avenue July 28, 1906 originally New Lots Road
B15 bus to JFK Airport
Canarsie East 105th Street July 28, 1906 original surface station, modified to high-level island platform c.1906
connecting tracks to Canarsie Yard
Disabled access Canarsie–Rockaway Parkway July 28, 1906 original surface station, extensively rebuilt as terminal station
free in-station transfer to B42 bus
B82 Select Bus Service
Flatlands Avenue line abandoned; station demolished; eventually replaced by B42 bus service
Avenue L line abandoned; station demolished; eventually replaced by B42 bus service
Canarsie Pier line abandoned; station demolished; eventually replaced by B42 bus service


  1. ^ MTA. “Average weekday subway ridership”. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
  2. ^ “Subway Service Guide” (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. September 2019. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Dougherty, Peter (2006) [2002]. Tracks of the New York City Subway 2006 (3rd ed.). Dougherty. OCLC 49777633 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ a b “Broadway Junction Transportation Study: NYC Department of City Planning Final Report-November 2008” (PDF). New York City Department of City Planning. November 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 6, 2010. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  5. ^ a b “1951 New York City Subway Map”. New York Telephone. 1951. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
  6. ^ a b “Broadway Junction Transportation Study: NYC Department of City Planning Final Report-November 2008” (PDF). New York City Department of City Planning. November 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 6, 2010. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  7. ^ a b Cudahy, Brian J. (2002). How We Got to Coney Island: The Development of Mass Transportation in Brooklyn and Kings County. Fordham Univ Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-8232-2209-4. canarsie trolley.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Feinman, Mark S. (February 17, 2001). “Early Rapid Transit in Brooklyn, 1878–1913”. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
  9. ^ “MONEY SET ASIDE FOR NEW SUBWAYS; Board of Estimate Approves City Contracts to be Signed To-day with Interboro and B.R.T.” (PDF). The New York Times. March 19, 1913. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  10. ^ District, New York (State) Public Service Commission First (January 1, 1921). Annual Report for the Year Ended … The Commission.
  11. ^ Bennett, Charles G. (July 24, 1959). “Yes, City Transit System Has a Grade Crossing; City Lets Canarsie Retain Gates At Sole Transit System Crossing”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 30, 2018. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  12. ^ “Last Grade Crossing on Subway System Is Closed”. The New York Times. August 6, 1973. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 22, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  13. ^ Fowler, Glenn (September 6, 1970). “Flatlands Industrial Park, Year Old, Making Strides”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 29, 2018. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  14. ^ “Official Map of Dual Subway Showing Lines and Stations”. The New York Times. April 26, 1914. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  15. ^ “East River Tunnel Contract Awarded”. The New York Times. January 14, 1916. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
  16. ^ Aronson, Michael (June 15, 1999). “The Digger Clifford Holland”. Daily News. New York. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  17. ^ “Silver Spade Breaks Ground for E. D. Tube”. Times Union. April 8, 1916. pp. 15, 16. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  18. ^ “Breaking of Ground for Subway to be Gala Fete”. The Chat. April 8, 1916. pp. 1, 9. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  19. ^ “Hylan Again Blocks Work On Subway: Miller’s Warning Falls on Deaf Ears, but Estimate Board Asks for Bids at Current Prices”. New-York Tribune. April 25, 1922. p. 1. ProQuest 576578070.
  20. ^ a b “Long Delayed E. D. Transit Relief Move Announced”. The Standard Union. October 29, 1922. pp. 9, 11. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  21. ^ “Laying of Tracks Starts New Action for Thru Tubes”. The Chat. November 4, 1922. p. 18. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  22. ^ “Installing Cars in 14th St. E. D. Subway”. The Chat. June 21, 1924. p. 1. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  23. ^ “Subway Tunnel Through”. The New York Times. August 8, 1919. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
  24. ^ “Celebrate Opening of Subway Link”. The New York Times. July 1, 1924. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
  25. ^ “Whole City to Celebrate E. D. Subway Opening Tomorrow”. Times Union. June 29, 1924. p. 8. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  26. ^ “14th St. B.M.T. Line Carries 23,117,224; Area Served by Fourteenth Street-Eastern Subway”. The New York Times. July 8, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  27. ^ “New Link Approved by Subway Board; Extension of Eastern District Line Corresponds to Mayor’s Program” (PDF). The New York Times. July 16, 1924. p. 19. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  28. ^ “Fix Rest of Route of 14th St. Subway; Transportation Board Agrees on Line to the Elevated at Broadway, Brooklyn”. The New York Times. September 24, 1924. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  29. ^ “Viaduct Plan for Tube Vigorously Denounced”. The Chat. August 9, 1924. p. 29. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  30. ^ “To Ask B.-M.T. Consent For Tube Connection”. The Chat. September 27, 1924. p. 1. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  31. ^ “Adopts the Route to Complete Tube; Board Also Authorizes Bids on Final Link of Eastern Parkway Line”. The New York Times. October 1, 1924. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  32. ^ “Board Adopts Final Route Of 14th Street Subway: Section Runs From Halsey Street, Brooklyn, to Emergence at Eastern Parkway”. The New York Herald, New York Tribune. October 10, 1924. p. 7. ProQuest 1113039238.
  33. ^ “3 Contracts Awarded for 14th St. Subway; Aggregate $9,531,204 and Call for Operation of Trains Within Twenty-eight Months”. The New York Times. November 12, 1924. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  34. ^ “New Brooklyn Tube in Danger of Delay; Transportation Board and Long Island Road Are Deadlocked on a Short Stretch”. The New York Times. November 17, 1925. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  35. ^ “Low Bid on Brooklyn Tube; $1,345,778 for Five Blocks Is Recommended to City”. The New York Times. January 13, 1926. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  36. ^ “Last Link of New 14th St-E.D. Subway To Be Opened Today: First Train This Afternoon Will Carry Officials – Citizens to Celebrate”. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 14, 1928. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i “CELEBRATE OPENING OF NEW B. M. T. LINE; Officials and Civic Association Members Fill First Train From Union Square. MET BY BAND AT CANARSIE Crowds Cheer Passing Cars at Stations Along New Route to Jamaica Bay”. The New York Times. July 15, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
  38. ^ “Districts Unite To Hail Opening Of Subway Link: Delegations All Way to Canarsie Welcome First Train, That Is Flag-Draped Many Officials on Board Lockwood in Speech Promises Better Connections”. New York Herald Tribune. July 15, 1928. p. 17. ProQuest 1113768361.
  39. ^ a b “Mayor Drives Train in New Subway Link”, The New York Times May 30, 1931, page 11
  40. ^ Brooklyn Streetcars. Arcadia Publishing. September 29, 2008. ISBN 978-1-4396-2045-8.
  41. ^ “CANARSIE’S BACKYARD TROLLEY – Forgotten New York”. August 2011. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
  42. ^ “TROLLEY POLE, Canarsie – Forgotten New York”. December 1, 2015. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
  43. ^ An Assessment of the Transit Service Potential of Inactive Railroad Rights-of-way and Yards Final Report. New York City Department of City Planning. October 1991. pp. 29–30.
  44. ^ a b c d e f “RPA CBTC plan” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
  45. ^ Editor-in-Chief, William C. Vantuono (February 24, 2009). “MTA L Line trains go to full CBTC”. Retrieved March 13, 2016.
  46. ^ NY1 News (February 21, 2009). “L Subway service to be run by computers”. Archived from the original on September 9, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
  47. ^ “MTA L Train Response to Squadron” (PDF) (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. September 6, 2011. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
  48. ^ “FTA Report #45 – CBTC2” (PDF). US Federal Transit Administration. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 6, 2015. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
  49. ^ a b Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (May 5, 2016). “Shutdown or Less Service? M.T.A. Weighs 2 Options for L Train Project”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  50. ^ Warerkar, Tanay (May 6, 2016). “MTA Reveals Details on L Train Shutdown at First Public Meeting”. Curbed NY. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  51. ^ Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (April 3, 2017). “M.T.A. Shortens L Train Shutdown to 15 Months”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
  52. ^ Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (May 5, 2016). “L Train Riders Quiz Transit Officials on Shutdown”. The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  53. ^ “MTA | news | Decision to Completely Close the Tunnel Follows Months of Community Meetings, Stakeholder and Public Input on Reconstruction Options; MTA Will Develop and Announce Service Plans as 2019 Project Approaches”. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  54. ^ “The L Train Shutdown: Here’s How to Commute Between Brooklyn and Manhattan”. DNAinfo New York. Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  55. ^ Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (July 25, 2016). “L Train Will Shut Down From Manhattan to Brooklyn in ’19 for 18 Months”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  56. ^ Rivoli, Dan (May 7, 2016). “Looming L train shutdown forces riders to consider future”. NY Daily News. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  57. ^ “Capital Program Oversight Committee Meeting” (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 2017. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
  58. ^ “Elevators are a win, but L-train shutdown fight still on track”. The Villager Newspaper. June 21, 2018. Archived from the original on June 27, 2018. Retrieved June 26, 2018.
  59. ^ “L train shutdown prompts 17-hour-a-day 14th St. busway”. am New York. June 25, 2018. Retrieved June 26, 2018.
  60. ^ “L Train Shutdown to Begin on April 27”. Spectrum News NY1 | New York City. October 30, 2018. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  61. ^ Fitzsimmons, Emma G.; Goldmacher, Shane (January 3, 2019). “Full Shutdown of L Train to Be Halted by Cuomo”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  62. ^ “Governor Cuomo Announces Completion of Nation-leading L Project Tunnel Rehabilitation With No Shutdown” (Press release). Albany, NY: New York State – Governor Andrew M. Cuomo. April 26, 2020. Archived from the original on April 27, 2020. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  63. ^ “Cuomo announces that the L Train will reopen”. The New York Times. April 26, 2020. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  64. ^ “B.M.T. TO SPEED UP QUEENS SERVICE; New Multi-Section Cars to Be Used for Special Rush-Hour Trips Starting Wednesday”. The New York Times. September 21, 1936. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  65. ^ “B.M.T. ‘El’ Lines to Shift Service; City to Close 2 Sections This Week; New Schedules Affect Fulton St., Lexington Ave. and Culver Roads–Free Transfers to the Independent System at Some Stations”. The New York Times. May 27, 1940. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  66. ^ Perlmutter, Emanuel (November 16, 1967). “SUBWAY CHANGES TO SPEED SERVICE: Major Alterations in Maps, Routes and Signs Will Take Effect Nov. 26” (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  67. ^ Hofmann, Paul (July 1, 1968). “SKIP-STOP SUBWAY BEGINS RUN TODAY; KK Line Links 3 Boroughs –Other Routes Changed”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
  68. ^ “1991 Service Capacity Plan” (PDF). New York City Transit Authority. January 4, 1991. p. 207. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  69. ^ a b c d e f g h i “Celebrate Opening of Subway Link”, The New York Times July 1, 1924, page 23

External links[edit]

Route map:

KML is from Wikidata