Solar particle event – Wikipedia

Solar phenomenon

Post-eruptive loops in the wake of a solar flare, image taken by the TRACE satellite (photo by NASA)

In solar physics, a solar particle event (SPE), also known as a solar proton event, prompt proton event, or solar radiation storm,[1] is a solar phenomenon which occurs when particles emitted by the Sun, mostly protons, become accelerated either in the Sun’s atmosphere during a solar flare or in interplanetary space by a coronal mass ejection shock. Other nuclei such as helium and HZE ions may also be accelerated during the event. These particles can penetrate the Earth’s magnetic field and cause partial ionization of the ionosphere. Energetic protons are a significant radiation hazard to spacecraft and astronauts.


Solar protons normally have insufficient energy to penetrate the Earth’s magnetic field. However, during unusually strong flares, protons can be accelerated to sufficient energies to reach the Earth’s magnetosphere and ionosphere around the north pole and south pole.

Protons are charged particles and are therefore influenced by magnetic fields. When the energetic protons leave the Sun, they preferentially follow (or are guided by) the Sun’s powerful magnetic field. When solar protons enter the Earth’s magnetosphere where the magnetic fields are stronger than solar magnetic fields, they are guided by the Earth’s magnetic field into the polar regions where the majority of the Earth’s magnetic field lines enter and exit.

Energetic protons that are guided into the polar regions collide with atmospheric constituents and release their energy through the process of ionization. The majority of the energy is extinguished in the extreme lower region of the ionosphere (around 50–80 km in altitude). This area is particularly important to ionospheric radio communications because this is the area where most of the absorption of radio signal energy occurs. The enhanced ionization produced by incoming energetic protons increases the absorption levels in the lower ionosphere and can have the effect of completely blocking all ionospheric radio communications through the polar regions. Such events are known as polar cap absorption events. These events commence and last as long as the energy of incoming protons at approximately greater than 10 MeV (million electron volts) exceeds roughly 10 pfu (particle flux units or particlessr·cm2·s) at geosynchronous satellite altitudes.

The more severe proton events can be associated with geomagnetic storms that can cause widespread disruption to electrical grids. However, proton events themselves are not responsible for producing anomalies in power grids, nor are they responsible for producing geomagnetic storms. Power grids are only sensitive to fluctuations in the Earth’s magnetic field.

Extremely intense solar proton flares capable of producing energetic protons with energies in excess of 100 MeV can increase neutron count rates at ground levels through secondary radiation effects. These rare events are known as ground level enhancements (or GLEs). Some events produce large amounts of HZE ions, although their contribution to the total radiation is small compared to the level of protons.[2]

High altitude commercial transpolar aircraft flights have measured increases in radiation during energetic proton events, but a warning system is in place that limits these effects by alerting pilots to lower their cruising altitudes. Aircraft flights away from the polar regions are far less likely to see an impact from solar proton events.

Significant proton radiation exposure can be experienced by astronauts who are outside of the protective shield of the Earth’s magnetosphere, such as an astronaut in-transit to, or located on the Moon. However, the effects can be minimized if astronauts are in a low-Earth orbit and remain confined to the most heavily shielded regions of their spacecraft. Proton radiation levels in low earth orbit increase with orbital inclination. Therefore, the closer a spacecraft approaches the polar regions, the greater the exposure to energetic proton radiation will be.

When energetic protons strike the sensitive optical electronics in spacecraft (such as star trackers and other cameras) flashes occur in the images being captured. The effect can be so pronounced that during extreme events, it is not possible to obtain quality images of the Sun or stars. This can cause spacecraft to lose their orientation, which is critical if ground controllers are to maintain control.

Energetic proton storms can also electrically charge spacecraft to levels that can damage electronic components. They can also cause electronic components to behave erratically. For example, solid state memory on spacecraft can be altered, which may cause data or software contamination and result in unexpected (phantom) spacecraft commands being executed. Energetic proton storms also destroy the efficiency of the solar panels that are designed to collect and convert sunlight to electricity. During years of exposure to energetic proton activity from the Sun, spacecraft can lose a substantial amount of electrical power that may require important instruments to be turned off.

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  1. ^ Jiggens, P.; Clavie, C.; Evans, H.; O’Brien, T. P.; Witasse, O.; Mishev, A. L.; Nieminen, P.; Daly, E.; Kalegaev, V.; Vlasova, N.; Borisov, S.; Benck, S.; Poivey, C.; Cyamukungu, M.; Mazur, J.; Heynderickx, D.; Sandberg, I.; Berger, T.; Usoskin, I. G.; Paassilta, M.; Vainio, R.; Straube, U.; Müller, D.; Sánchez‐Cano, B.; Hassler, D.; Praks, J.; Niemelä, P.; Leppinen, H.; Punkkinen, A.; Aminalragia‐Giamini, S.; Nagatsuma, T. (January 2019). “In Situ Data and Effect Correlation During September 2017 Solar Particle Event”. Space Weather. 17 (1): 99–117. doi:10.1029/2018SW001936. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  2. ^ Contribution of High Charge and Energy (HZE) Ions During Solar-Particle Event of September 29, 1989 Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Atwell, William; Badavi, Francis F.; Miller, Jack, NASA Johnson Space Center; Langley Research Center, May 1999.

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